by Mike Ratliff
26 The Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 27 “On exactly the tenth day of this seventh month is the day of atonement; it shall be a holy convocation for you, and you shall humble your souls and present an offering by fire to the Lord. 28 You shall not do any work on this same day, for it is a day of atonement, to make atonement on your behalf before the Lord your God. 29 If there is any person who will not humble himself on this same day, he shall be cut off from his people. 30 As for any person who does any work on this same day, that person I will destroy from among his people. 31 You shall do no work at all. It is to be a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your dwelling places. 32 It is to be a sabbath of complete rest to you, and you shall humble your souls; on the ninth of the month at evening, from evening until evening you shall keep your sabbath.” Leviticus 23:26-32 (NASB)
Please carefully read the passage I placed at the top of this post. Do you see the serious emphasis God places on the need for His people’s atonement? What is this atonement? Biblical atonement is the act of God canceling the debt of His people’s sin. Without it God’s wrath against their sin could not be appeased.
Now, let us move forward in history to the actual day that this Jewish feast symbolized. An innocent man is nearly beaten to death by brutal Roman soldiers. He is covered in blood from his innumerable wounds from being scourged. He is covered in bruises from his many beatings. His beard has been nearly ripped out of his face. He is bleeding from the scalp wounds from a crudely formed crown of thorns that has been forcibly crushed into the top of his head. He is being forced to carry a huge beam of wood that the soldiers have tied across his shoulders and arms. He is being lead by them out of the city to the place of the skull.
There are two others who are going to die this day in this procession, but the crowd is focused on this man. They hardly recognize him. Could this be Jesus who cleansed the temple just few days ago? He barely looks human now. Perhaps he isn’t who he claimed to be after all. Before the procession reaches the place of crucifixion the one receiving all of the attention collapses under the weight of the beam. He has lost much blood and has had nothing to eat or drink since the meal with his disciples the night before. He is dehydrated and his internal organs are already being stressed to the point of shutting down.
The soldiers beat him to try to force him to rise and carry his cross, but he has no strength left for that. The soldiers force a bystander to carry it for him. Then the procession continues towards its appointment with the purpose and will of God.
They arrive at the place of death that is near the road leading in and out of the city. The Romans always execute criminals publicly with their bodies left hanging on their crosses to be a deterrent against crime and treason and insurrection. They force each of the three men to lie down on their backs with the beam of wood under their shoulder’s and arms. Sometimes they simply raise the condemned by the beam up to a vertical beam forming a “T” shaped cross. Other times they use metal or wood spikes nailed through the wrists into the horizontal beam and through the ankles into the vertical beam to affix the condemned man. Jesus is nailed to his cross. He is raised up above the ground and so begins the hours of agony that always leads to death.
32 Two others also, who were criminals, were being led away to be put to death with Him.
33 When they came to the place called The Skull, there they crucified Him and the criminals, one on the right and the other on the left. 34 But Jesus was saying, “Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing.” And they cast lots, dividing up His garments among themselves. Luke 23:32-34 (NASB)
23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took His outer garments and made four parts, a part to every soldier and also the tunic; now the tunic was seamless, woven in one piece. 24 So they said to one another, “Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it, to decide whose it shall be”; this was to fulfill the Scripture: “They divided My outer garments among them, and for My clothing they cast lots.” 25 Therefore the soldiers did these things.
But standing by the cross of Jesus were His mother, and His mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. 26 When Jesus then saw His mother, and the disciple whom He loved standing nearby, He *said to His mother, “Woman, behold, your son!” 27 Then He *said to the disciple, “Behold, your mother!” From that hour the disciple took her into his own household.
28 After this, Jesus, knowing that all things had already been accomplished, to fulfill the Scripture, *said, “I am thirsty.” 29 A jar full of sour wine was standing there; so they put a sponge full of the sour wine upon a branch of hyssop and brought it up to His mouth. 30 Therefore when Jesus had received the sour wine, He said, “It is finished!” And He bowed His head and gave up His spirit. John 19:23-30 (NASB)
45 Now from the sixth hour darkness fell upon all the land until the ninth hour. 46 About the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, “Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?” that is, “My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?” Matthew 27:45-46 (NASB)
For whom did Christ die? Why was it necessary and what has that got to do with the doctrine of Limited Atonement? Remember what the word atonement means. The atonement of the doctrine of Limited Atonement is the work of God in Christ. By the work of our Lord Jesus Christ, his obedience and death, God cancelled the debt of our sin, appeased His holy wrath against us, and won for us all the benefits of salvation. Most people nowadays do not take sin seriously. However, God takes it very seriously.
19 Now we know that whatever the Law says, it speaks to those who are under the Law, so that every mouth may be closed and all the world may become accountable to God; 20 because by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight; for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.
21 But now apart from the Law the righteousness of God has been manifested, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets, 22 even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction; 23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24 being justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus; 25 whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed; 26 for the demonstration, I say, of His righteousness at the present time, so that He would be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus. Romans 3:19-26 (NASB)
All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. All in Christ are justified as a gift by God’s Grace through the redemption, which is in our Lord Jesus Christ. Christ took my place on the cross because I am unable to atone for my own sins because I am a sinner. Jesus Christ is God and sinless. He is the only one who could take my place as my propitiation. It was by His blood that we are saved by grace through faith. This demonstrates His righteousness. Why? How? Our sin separates us from God. God takes it so seriously that he sacrificed His Son in order to reconcile us to Him. The cost was higher than we can comprehend. Therefore, in this demonstration of God’s Righteousness we must never dare to cheapen the Atonement.
The Gospel is serious business. I have used this example before, but I feel it is appropriate here. Several years ago Ted Bundy was executed for being a convicted serial killer. He was guilty. He admitted it. He also became a Christian in prison. I remember when he was executed, the outrage people expressed was extreme that this man could possibly be in Heaven after being such a horrible murderer. However, in God’s eyes all of us are just a guilty as Ted Bundy. It is outrageous that God has forgiven my sins. It is wrong. It is an affront to the Righteousness of God that I am forgiven and declared righteous by God. However, all we have to do is look at the cross and our Lord crucified there to see where the price has been paid. Then we see the awful thing our sin is and it should break us and send us to our knees in humility and spiritual brokenness.
21 He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him. 2 Corinthians 5:21 (NASB)
18 For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit; 1 Peter 3:18 (NASB)
9 Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from the wrath of God through Him. 10 For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life. Romans 5:9-10 (NASB)
32 He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him over for us all, how will He not also with Him freely give us all things? Romans 8:32 (NASB)
Who limits the atonement? Both Monergists and Synergists limit the atonement. Synergists limit the effectiveness of the atonement by denying that it purchased the promises of the New Covenant for irresistible grace. Monergists, on the other hand, affirm this purchase of the promises of the New Covenant for irresistible grace. By this, they limit the full blessings of the atonement to those God irresistibly brings to saving faith.
I personally don’t care for the term “Limited Atonement.” It brings a negative connotation to our faith that angers many people unnecessarily. I prefer to call this doctrine either Definite Atonement or Particular Redemption. Most of the authors I enjoy who write about these things lean towards Particular Redemption and I do as well. Definite Atonement means that it is designed for definite individuals who are effectively save by it. Particular Redemption means that God has particular people in view in the design of the atonement. Through it he purchased all the blessings of salvation for His people.
Synergists or Arminians counter with Unlimited Atonement or Universal Redemption. What they mean by that is that God’s design in the atonement is the same for all individual people. I have preached on John 3 and I don’t think that I ever watered down John 3:16, but that is the accusation from Synergists against Monergists.
16 “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life. John 3:16 (NASB)
I do not believe that Monergists water it down because this verse affirms that God loved the world so that anyone who believes will be saved by the death of His Son. Both Monergists and Synergists affirm this truth: All who believe will be saved by the atonement of Jesus.
So, why are Monergists and Synergists at each other’s throats? Why the name-calling and character assassinations? What is the dispute? Monergists or Calvinists believe that the death of Christ definitely accomplished or purchased something more than Synergists or Arminians believe it did. That bone of contention is the effectual grace to believe and come to Christ.
8 For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; 9 not as a result of works, so that no one may boast. Ephesians 2:8-9 (NASB)
24 The Lord’s bond-servant must not be quarrelsome, but be kind to all, able to teach, patient when wronged, 25 with gentleness correcting those who are in opposition, if perhaps God may grant them repentance leading to the knowledge of the truth, 2 Timothy 2:24-25 (NASB)
14 A woman named Lydia, from the city of Thyatira, a seller of purple fabrics, a worshiper of God, was listening; and the Lord opened her heart to respond to the things spoken by Paul. Acts 16:14 (NASB)
65 And He was saying, “For this reason I have said to you, that no one can come to Me unless it has been granted him from the Father.” John 6:65 (NASB)
Monergists believe the Atonement purchased more than Synergists believe it did. They base that on those verses above and many others. Monergists understanding of this is that God limited the atonement by conscious design or intention to accomplish the conversion of a definite group of people. They believe that in that, God will effectually save His people not just hold out the opportunity to all people to believe. In other words, Monergists tie the doctrine of Particular Redemption to the doctrine of Irresistible Grace. Why? It is because of the New Covenant promise of this grace to God’s people and the blood of Jesus, which purchased the covenant.
20 And in the same way He took the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in My blood. Luke 22:20 (NASB)
27 And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you; 28 for this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins. Matthew 26:27-28 (NASB)
23 For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus in the night in which He was betrayed took bread; 24 and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, “This is My body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of Me.” 25 In the same way He took the cup also after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in My blood; do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me.” 1 Corinthians 11:23-25 (NASB)
31 “Behold, days are coming,” declares the Lord, “when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, 32 not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,” declares the Lord. 33 “But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,” declares the Lord, “I will put My law within them and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. Jeremiah 31:31-33 (NASB)
38 They shall be My people, and I will be their God; 39 and I will give them one heart and one way, that they may fear Me always, for their own good and for the good of their children after them. 40 I will make an everlasting covenant with them that I will not turn away from them, to do them good; and I will put the fear of Me in their hearts so that they will not turn away from Me. Jeremiah 32:38-40 (NASB)
26 Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. 27 I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances. Ezekiel 36:26-27 (NASB)
The Christian faith is bound to a covenant with God, which He called the New Covenant or New Testament. In the New Testament we have a book that ties the promises of the Old Covenant to the fulfillment in the New Covenant. That, of course is the book of Hebrews. How did the author of this wonderful book develop this?
20 Now the God of peace, who brought up from the dead the great Shepherd of the sheep through the blood of the eternal covenant, even Jesus our Lord, 21 equip you in every good thing to do His will, working in us that which is pleasing in His sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen. Hebrews 13:20-21 (NASB)
14 For by one offering He has perfected for all time those who are sanctified. 15 And the Holy Spirit also testifies to us; for after saying,
16 “This is the covenant that I will make with them
After those days, says the Lord:
I will put My laws upon their heart,
And on their mind I will write them,”
He then says,
17 “And their sins and their lawless deeds
I will remember no more.”
18 Now where there is forgiveness of these things, there is no longer any offering for sin. Hebrews 10:14-18 (NASB)
9 But we do see Him who was made for a little while lower than the angels, namely, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, so that by the grace of God He might taste death for everyone.
10 For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to perfect the author of their salvation through sufferings. 11 For both He who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one Father; for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren, 12 saying,
“I will proclaim Your name to My brethren,
In the midst of the congregation I will sing Your praise.”
13 And again,
“I will put My trust in Him.”
“Behold, I and the children whom God has given Me.”
14 Therefore, since the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself likewise also partook of the same, that through death He might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil, 15 and might free those who through fear of death were subject to slavery all their lives. 16 For assuredly He does not give help to angels, but He gives help to the descendant of Abraham. 17 Therefore, He had to be made like His brethren in all things, so that He might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people. 18 For since He Himself was tempted in that which He has suffered, He is able to come to the aid of those who are tempted. Hebrews 2:9-18 (NASB)
27 And inasmuch as it is appointed for men to die once and after this comes judgment, 28 so Christ also, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time for salvation without reference to sin, to those who eagerly await Him. Hebrews 9:27-28 (NASB)
Now let us look at an extra-biblical work by one of my favorite authors. John Owen was a godly man and very learned. He was of the Church of England, but lived in the time of the English Civil War and the Restoration. He wrote many books and papers, all of them very difficult to read because of his heavy Latinized English. However, they are full of treasure for the one willing to dig. His book, The Death of Death in the Death of Jesus Christ, is without a doubt the most definitive work on the Doctrine of Particular Redemption that has ever been published. The following from John Owen addresses Jeremiah 31:31-32 and Hebrews 8:9-11.
“Wherein , first the condition of the covenant is not said to be required, but is absolutely promised: ‘I will put my fear in their hearts.’ And this is the main difference between the old covenant of works and the new one of grace, that in that the Lord did only require the fulfilling of the condition prescribed, but in this he promises to effect it in them himself with whom the covenant is made. This then is one main difference of these two covenants – that the Lord did in the old only require the condition; now, in the new, he will also effect it in all federates, to whom this covenant is extended”1
The following Biblical texts are commonly used by Synergists to deny the veracity of Limited Atonement.
6 who gave Himself as a ransom for all, the testimony given at the proper time. 1 Timothy 2:6 (NASB)
1 My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin. And if anyone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; 2 and He Himself is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for those of the whole world. 1 John 2:1-2 (NASB)
9 But we do see Him who was made for a little while lower than the angels, namely, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, so that by the grace of God He might taste death for everyone. Hebrews 2:9 (NASB)
19 namely, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and He has committed to us the word of reconciliation. 2 Corinthians 5:19 (NASB)
29 The next day he *saw Jesus coming to him and *said, “Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world! John 1:29 (NASB)
1 But false prophets also arose among the people, just as there will also be false teachers among you, who will secretly introduce destructive heresies, even denying the Master who bought them, bringing swift destruction upon themselves. 2 Peter 2:1 (NASB)
In each of these passages, except 2 Peter 2:1, there are words that seem to make the action all inclusive such as all, everyone, the world, the whole world. While each of those passages can mean that, it does not necessarily follow that they do. For example, we use all-inclusive words much of the time when we don’t mean it. An example would be when I say that a co-worker of mine is “always abusing his speaker phone privileges.” Well, he does, but it isn’t all the time or always. It just seems like it to many of us there. Another example would be when the Sanhedrin became fearful when some of them complained, “the whole world was following after Jesus.” Was it the whole world? Of course not! So you see we do this sort of thing all the time. Uh, no we don’t. You get the idea.
2 Peter 2:1 seems to imply that Jesus bought not only the elect, but also those reprobates who were false teachers. Did Jesus buy them with His Blood as well as those who are truly saved? The Greek terms that Peter used in this section of 2 Peter are more analogical than theological. They speak of a human master over a household. The master bought slaves, and the slaves owed the master allegiance as their sovereign. Doctrinally, Peter’s analogy can be viewed as responsibility for submission to God which the false teachers had refused. They were also probably insisting that they were Christians. Therefore, the Lord had bought them actually and personally. Peter’s description here is marked with sarcasm where he mocks their claim by telling of their coming damnation. Peter uses this literary vehicle to describe the sinister character of the false teachers who claim to be Christians, but deny His Lordship over their own lives.
The following passages seem to speak of the Atonement for a limited group.
6 For while we were still helpless, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. 7 For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die. 8 But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Romans 5:6-8 (NASB)
9 For God has not destined us for wrath, but for obtaining salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ, 10 who died for us, so that whether we are awake or asleep, we will live together with Him. 1 Thessalonians 5:9-10 (NASB)
11 “I am the good shepherd; the good shepherd lays down His life for the sheep. John 10:11 (NASB)
14 I am the good shepherd, and I know My own and My own know Me, 15 even as the Father knows Me and I know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep. John 10:14-15 (NASB)
25 Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up for her, Ephesians 5:25 (NASB)
28 Be on guard for yourselves and for all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood. Acts 20:28 (NASB)
51 Now he did not say this on his own initiative, but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus was going to die for the nation, 52 and not for the nation only, but in order that He might also gather together into one the children of God who are scattered abroad. John 11:51-52 (NASB)
14 For by one offering He has perfected for all time those who are sanctified. Hebrews 10:14 (NASB)
Now, if I was a Synergist and I had my proof texts that seemed to show that God died for all people and that salvation was only a possibility available to all people, and it was entirely up to them to exercise their will in order to have it, I would feel that I was right. However, when confronted with the passages above I must admit that there is another dimension here that does not fit with my “understanding.” Likewise, being a Monergist, I look at the passages above and see God’s sovereignty in designating a people for Himself and doing all to make salvation effectual for them. However, when confronted with the passages that seem to speak of free will and Christ dying for the whole world then I must not turn a blind eye to them as if denying their existence. There is some tension here it we must determine how to approach that to be as biblically correct as we can.
Synergists take the passages above that speak of the atonement being solely for a designated people and say the meaning is that God designs and intends the atonement for all people in the same way, but that God applies it as effective and saving only for those who believe and, therefore, become part of “us” and the “the sheep” and the “the church” and the “the children of God.”
Their view, then, says that the sentence, “Christ died for you,” means: Christ died for all sinners, so that if you will repent and believe in Christ, then the death of Jesus will become effective in your case and will take away your sins. To many Monergists this is an acceptable understanding, as far as it goes. However, the problem arises when Synergists deny something clearly taught in Holy Scripture, which is that the texts about Christ’s dying for “us” or “his sheep” or his “church” or “the children of God” were intended by God to obtain something more for His people than the benefits they get after they believe. They specifically deny that the death of Christ not only intended by God to obtain benefits for people after they believe, but even more, Christ’s death was intended by God to obtain the very willingness to believe. In other words, the blood of Jesus also obtained the divine grace that it takes to overcome our hardness of heart so that we can become a believer.
Synergists and Monergists are not in dispute over the facts that Christ died to obtain great saving benefits for all who believe or that Christ died so that we might say to everyone everywhere without exception, “God gave His only begotten Son to die for sin so that if you believe on Him, you may have eternal live.” No we are not in dispute here. The dispute is whether God intended for the His Son’s death to obtain more than saving benefits after faith and a genuine invitation that can be made to any person to believe on Jesus Christ for salvation. That, of course, is this: did God intend for the death of Christ to obtain the free gift of faith (Ephesians 2:8-9) and repentance (2 Timothy 2:25)?
8 For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; 9 not as a result of works, so that no one may boast. Ephesians 2:8-9 (NASB)
25 with gentleness correcting those who are in opposition, if perhaps God may grant them repentance leading to the knowledge of the truth, 2 Timothy 2:25 (NASB)
We must then determine if the Synergistic interpretation of Universal Atonement contradicts the Monergistic interpretation of scripture that includes the free gift of faith and repentance. To be fair, most Synergists or Arminians despise even the hint of “Universal Salvation,” therefore they do not teach that the death of Christ “for all” saves all. In other words, most honest Synergists would have no problem with this statement; “God intended the atonement to make salvation possible for all persons, but this atonement becomes effectual only in those who believe.” Does this statement conflict with the Monergistic or Calvinistic contention that God does intend to obtain the grace of faith and repentance for a definite group by Christ’s death on the Cross? No it does not.
I ask Synergists or Arminians to honestly assess their interpretation of their “Universal Atonement” and “Free Will” texts. If you do then you will see that the interpretation of those texts simply affirms that all may have salvation if they believe. Monergists or Calvinists are in full agreement there. Monergism, however, goes further. I understand that our contention of this “further” by God, which is not done for everyone therefore limiting atonement, causes the Synergist to cry foul. This, of course is where Unconditional Election comes in, which we have already covered.
I am not trying to be divisive by writing on the doctrines of grace. I am trying to show where the differences really are. I believe that many of the Synergistic and Monergistic disputes are born from prideful arguments that have little to do with describing and defining the truth. The doctrines of grace is a Soteriological view that is highly misunderstood, even by many Calvinists. Many have a tendency to remove Man’s Responsibility to believe and repent to the point of not offering the Gospel freely to all. To do that is the result of dishonest interpretation of clear Biblical texts. On the other hand, most Synergists’ Soteriological views remove the Sovereignty of God and seem to elevate man to that position. Can you see how each extreme is out of balance? The correct view of our incredible Salvation is one in which God is glorified and man cannot boast. (Ephesians 2:8-9)
Soli Deo Gloria!
1 John Owen, The Death of Death in the Death of Jesus Christ, vol. 10, pp. 236-237